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 Duzshura  21.05.2019  1
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Multiple partener sex

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Multiple partener sex

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Multiple partener sex

Multiple partener sex

Coded responses were summed and converted to a point scale by multiplying by 0. Background Since the start of open-door policies in the s and the economic reforms of the s, China has experienced dramatic social changes associated with rapid economic reform and growth. There have been some studies on the sexual behavior of undergraduates [ 4 , 17 , 25 — 29 ]. Census Bureau website to determine the census tract in which they lived. Data were used to examine the prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior in this population. In turn, women may feel compelled to be more tolerant of a male partner's concurrent partnerships. Qualitative research has found that the lack of men leads to less power for women, and to concurrent sexual partnerships for men Adimora et al. Inclusion criteria for the RCT included: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases STDs also has increased dramatically over the past few decades [ 7 , 8 ]. Gender was included as an individual-level Level I predictor, and the sex ratio in the census tract was included as a group-level Level II predictor. Because of the short time frame i. Multiple partener sex



Theresa E. Studies using population-level data have generally found that sex ratio and incarceration rates a proxy for the number of available men are associated with STD rates, although this relation is sometimes rendered nonsignificant when controlling for other variables Kilmarx et al. WHO recommends that additional indicators that quantify MSP more precisely to capture the reduction in multiple sexual partners in general. Table I Multilevel models predicting number of sexual partners in the past 3 months using gender and census tract male-to-female ratio Model 1. The final model Model 3 expands Model 2 by introducing current student factors. We also asked students to indicate the attitudes of their parents and middle-school close classmates and friends toward premarital sex. The Free Dictionary. There, African-American women typically outnumber men because of higher rates of incarceration and premature death among African-American men. To do this, we fitted a baseline variance component or empty model no independent variables followed by the model with demographics variables Model 1. SAS Proc Glimmix was used to conduct the multi-level analyses. Qualitative research has found that the lack of men leads to less power for women, and to concurrent sexual partnerships for men Adimora et al. For women, as the sex ratio increased, their number of sexual partners increased; however, this association was driven by participants who reported trading sex. Fifty-six percent of males and 16 percent of females had multiple sex partners in the preceding 12 months. Most importantly, those who have multiple sex partners are less likely to use condoms during sex [ 18 , 19 , 21 ]. In all, pairs of completed questionnaires were received. Potentially this definition and quantification may have a significant impact on the pandemic of HIV and used as a measure of program success. Census Bureau website to determine the census tract in which they lived. Retrieved 21 September The interaction between gender and the male-to-female ratio was significant. In recent years, HIV infection through sexual transmission is growing the fastest, from 7. Because of hierarchical data students were recruited from different universities , the multi-level logistic regression models were adjusted for clustering of students level 1 within university level 2 in this study. Procedures Complete details for the RCT are available elsewhere. Census-tract level data Participants came from 93 census tracts. MSP increases the risk of many diseases and other conditions. One hypothesis for the disparities in HIV builds upon the smaller number of African-American men in low-income, urban communities. Measures Participants were asked to report their sex, race, employment status, income, education, and marital status. The covariance parameter estimates, or variance components, indicate whether there is variation among census tracts, which could be explained by adding predictors to the model. Those who consented were given 30 minutes to complete the questionnaire, although most women took less time to complete it. Gender was included as an individual-level Level I predictor, and the sex ratio in the census tract was included as a group-level Level II predictor. In multilevel modeling, results consist of a fixed effect and variance-covariance parameter estimates.

Multiple partener sex



Evolutionary theorists posit that men are predisposed genetically to prefer multiple partners, whereas women are predisposed to invest in a single partner Buss and Schmitt, One hypothesis for the disparities in HIV builds upon the smaller number of African-American men in low-income, urban communities. Never having had sexual intercourse no MSP Having multiple sex partners, defined as having had four or more sex partners during one's lifetime Sexual activity was defined as having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months [11] Some clinicians define MSP by also taking into account concurrent sexual relationships. Patients reported their number of sexual partners; the male-to-female ratio per census tract was obtained from the U. High-risk heterosexual behavior is a contributive factor [ 16 ]. The proportion of the university variance explained for each model was estimated as the difference in university variance between baseline empty model and Model 1 or Model 2 or Model 3 divided by the university variance for the baseline model [ 30 ]. The covariance parameter estimates, or variance components, indicate whether there is variation among census tracts, which could be explained by adding predictors to the model. Thus, data were collected in four areas: When finished, students were instructed to insert their questionnaire into a locked box. In one of the few studies to use both population-level and individual-level data, Smith and Subramanian found that the sex ratio in Australia was associated with the number of sexual partners in the previous year; however, they did not explore whether the male-to-female ratio had differential effects for men and women. All participants were asked to consent to participate. Procedures Complete details for the RCT are available elsewhere. Students were surveyed at two time points, 10 days apart, with student self-assigned identification numbers so surveys could be linked across time points. Quantitative investigations of the relation between the male-to-female ratio and sexual behavior have been scarce. A Behavioral Surveillance Survey demonstrated that 89 percent of males and 78 percent of females aged 15 to 24 had sex with a nonmarital or noncohabitating partner in the preceding 12 months. Attitude toward premarital sex may impact behavior, and an investigation in China showed that Data from the census were used to determine the number of African-American men and women over age 18 in each census tract; to determine the ratio of African-American men to women i. Although HIV in China is still concentrated among injection drug users, former plasma donors, sex workers and their clients, and men who have sex with men MSM [ 13 ], there were indications that the disease is spreading from these high-risk groups to the general population [ 14 , 15 ]. However, qualitative research employs small samples, and the representativeness of participants is difficult to discern Krueger and Casey, Theresa E. Fifty-six percent of males and 16 percent of females had multiple sex partners in the preceding 12 months. The Free Dictionary. The covariance parameter for the intercept indicates whether there is variation among census tracts in the mean number of partners. The shortage of African-American men may facilitate partner concurrency. Potentially this definition and quantification may have a significant impact on the pandemic of HIV and used as a measure of program success. The recruitment period was December and April



































Multiple partener sex



Patients were excluded if they were unable to consent or to participate meaningfully in the study due to mental impairment, not willing to take an HIV test, already infected with HIV, or if they had been seen at the clinic in the prior three months to ensure that patients had not recently received one of the interventions that was being evaluated in the RCT. The proportion of the university variance explained for each model was estimated as the difference in university variance between baseline empty model and Model 1 or Model 2 or Model 3 divided by the university variance for the baseline model [ 30 ]. Census Bureau website to determine the census tract in which they lived. Participants completed their clinic visit, and were randomized one of six intervention conditions in the RCT. Because the sex ratio does not vary among census tracts, there is no variance component associated with this variable. Procedures Complete details for the RCT are available elsewhere. For women, as the sex ratio increased, their number of sexual partners increased; however, this association was driven by participants who reported trading sex. Those who agreed were screened for eligibility by the RA. A Behavioral Surveillance Survey demonstrated that 89 percent of males and 78 percent of females aged 15 to 24 had sex with a nonmarital or noncohabitating partner in the preceding 12 months. This is done so that change can be measured and so that the effect of indicators can be assessed. Students were surveyed at two time points, 10 days apart, with student self-assigned identification numbers so surveys could be linked across time points.

The final model Model 3 expands Model 2 by introducing current student factors. Researchers have found that when the male-to-female ratio is low, marriage rates are low for both men and women Albrecht and Albrecht, ; Albrecht et al. Thus, the sex ratio reflects the number of men for every women. Measures Participants were asked to report their sex, race, employment status, income, education, and marital status. Qualitative research has found that the lack of men leads to less power for women, and to concurrent sexual partnerships for men Adimora et al. Most importantly, those who have multiple sex partners are less likely to use condoms during sex [ 18 , 19 , 21 ]. We also asked students to indicate the attitudes of their parents and middle-school close classmates and friends toward premarital sex. Sexually transmitted HIV infections, for example, have increased in prevalence from 5. In brief, patients met with a Research Assistant RA in a private room, and were asked if they would be willing to answer a few brief questions. Methods Sample Of 43 universities in Wuhan, 16 were randomly selected according to type—2 out of 4 state universities, 10 of 25 universities under individual ministries, and 4 of 12 local universities. In addition, participants were asked how many male and how many female sexual partners they had in their lifetime and in the past 3 months, how many episodes of unprotected sex vaginal plus anal they had in the past 3 months, and how many times in their lifetime they exchanged sex for money or drugs. Census-tract level data Participants came from 93 census tracts. Also, preliminary studies in China suggested that students who major in the arts vs. It is estimated that half of the new HIV infections in China in occurred through unprotected heterosexual encounters [ 11 ]. Never having had sexual intercourse no MSP Having multiple sex partners, defined as having had four or more sex partners during one's lifetime Sexual activity was defined as having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months [11] Some clinicians define MSP by also taking into account concurrent sexual relationships. The outcome measure used in the present study was the number of opposite-sex partners reported in the past 3 months. Higher scores reflected better sex-related knowledge. For men, there was no association between the sex ratio and their number of sexual partners. Inclusion criteria for the RCT included: Gender was included as an individual-level Level I predictor, and the sex ratio in the census tract was included as a group-level Level II predictor. Promiscuity can mean that a moral judgement is made because some parts of societies promote sexual activity to occur only within exclusive, single-partner, committed relationships. To be eligible for the study, female undergraduates needed to be unmarried and needed to provide consent. Students were surveyed at two time points, 10 days apart, with student self-assigned identification numbers so surveys could be linked across time points. Multiple partener sex



In Model 1, no predictors were included i. The questionnaire was pretested with medical sciences majors. Response options were yes, no, and don't know; correct answers were coded 1, and other responses coded 0. All fixed and covariance parameter estimates are conditional on the effects of the other predictors in the model. Because of hierarchical data students were recruited from different universities , the multi-level logistic regression models were adjusted for clustering of students level 1 within university level 2 in this study. However, few studies have explored multiple sex partner behavior and associated risk factors among female undergraduates in China. For men, there was no association between the sex ratio and their number of sexual partners. Data were used to examine the prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior in this population. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases STDs also has increased dramatically over the past few decades [ 7 , 8 ]. Using stratified sampling, we achieved adequate numbers across the four college majors and the four years at school. Even so, decreasing the number of MSP may not indicate a change. Also, preliminary studies in China suggested that students who major in the arts vs. In addition, participants were asked how many male and how many female sexual partners they had in their lifetime and in the past 3 months, how many episodes of unprotected sex vaginal plus anal they had in the past 3 months, and how many times in their lifetime they exchanged sex for money or drugs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine the influence of individual i. Promiscuity can mean that a moral judgement is made because some parts of societies promote sexual activity to occur only within exclusive, single-partner, committed relationships. Potentially this definition and quantification may have a significant impact on the pandemic of HIV and used as a measure of program success. We found no evidence that fewer African-American men in a census tract was associated with men having more sexual partners. Thus, the sex ratio reflects the number of men for every women. Sex-related knowledge was measured using a 27 items regarding reproduction e. In addition to the survey, respondents' sexual histories are obtained. The covariance parameter for the intercept indicates whether there is variation among census tracts in the mean number of partners.

Multiple partener sex



If those surveyed changed their activity to one sexual partner, the change will be quantified by changes in the indicator. In Model 1, no predictors were included i. There have been some studies on the sexual behavior of undergraduates [ 4 , 17 , 25 — 29 ]. One hypothesis for the disparities in HIV builds upon the smaller number of African-American men in low-income, urban communities. It is estimated that half of the new HIV infections in China in occurred through unprotected heterosexual encounters [ 11 ]. All multi-level models were performed with MLwiN version 2. However, few studies have explored multiple sex partner behavior and associated risk factors among female undergraduates in China. There, African-American women typically outnumber men because of higher rates of incarceration and premature death among African-American men. Because of the short time frame i. The shortage of African-American men may facilitate partner concurrency. Promiscuity can mean that a moral judgement is made because some parts of societies promote sexual activity to occur only within exclusive, single-partner, committed relationships. Participants' addresses were entered into the U. Retrieved 21 September The risk of adverse health outcomes from multiple sex partners is greater for females than males, as it has direct influence on reproductive health [ 22 ]. In addition, participants were asked how many male and how many female sexual partners they had in their lifetime and in the past 3 months, how many episodes of unprotected sex vaginal plus anal they had in the past 3 months, and how many times in their lifetime they exchanged sex for money or drugs. Results Sample characteristics Of the 4, female undergraduates in the sample, the mean age was Fifty-six percent of males and 16 percent of females had multiple sex partners in the preceding 12 months. Contact information was also obtained from participants. Evolutionary theorists posit that men are predisposed genetically to prefer multiple partners, whereas women are predisposed to invest in a single partner Buss and Schmitt, In brief, patients met with a Research Assistant RA in a private room, and were asked if they would be willing to answer a few brief questions. Participants reported engaging in recent and lifetime risk behavior, with an average of 2. To assure adequate proportions of students across the four years of college and in four majors literature and history, science and technology, medicine, and art , sampling on each campus was purposive. Understanding these risk factors can help health care practitioners and health educators develop messages and interventions to reduce young peoples' risk of infection with HIV and other STDs. For women, as the sex ratio increased, their number of sexual partners increased; however, this association was driven by participants who reported trading sex. Those who consented were given 30 minutes to complete the questionnaire, although most women took less time to complete it. Procedures Complete details for the RCT are available elsewhere.

Multiple partener sex



All participants were asked to consent to participate. The criterion i. In all, pairs of completed questionnaires were received. Studies using population-level data have generally found that sex ratio and incarceration rates a proxy for the number of available men are associated with STD rates, although this relation is sometimes rendered nonsignificant when controlling for other variables Kilmarx et al. Traditional attitudes towards sex, marriage, and family have changed. Analysis assists those conducting the study to verify and help define the term MSP. Procedures Complete details for the RCT are available elsewhere. Even so, decreasing the number of MSP may not indicate a change. Because of the short time frame i. Background Since the start of open-door policies in the s and the economic reforms of the s, China has experienced dramatic social changes associated with rapid economic reform and growth. Fifty-six percent of males and 16 percent of females had multiple sex partners in the preceding 12 months. Participants then completed a computerized survey, which included demographic and sexual behavior questions. In one of the few studies to use both population-level and individual-level data, Smith and Subramanian found that the sex ratio in Australia was associated with the number of sexual partners in the previous year; however, they did not explore whether the male-to-female ratio had differential effects for men and women. Students were surveyed at two time points, 10 days apart, with student self-assigned identification numbers so surveys could be linked across time points. Qualitative research has found that the lack of men leads to less power for women, and to concurrent sexual partnerships for men Adimora et al. Students were informed about the study and its purpose, assured that participation was voluntary, and reminded that the survey was anonymous and not to put their name on it. Coded responses were summed and converted to a point scale by multiplying by 0. Patients reported their number of sexual partners; the male-to-female ratio per census tract was obtained from the U. It is hypothesized that, when the sex ratio is low, women are less likely to marry because there are fewer men, whereas men are less likely to marry because they value women less when there are many available women Guttentag and Secord, The covariance parameter estimates, or variance components, indicate whether there is variation among census tracts, which could be explained by adding predictors to the model. WHO recommends that additional indicators that quantify MSP more precisely to capture the reduction in multiple sexual partners in general. The covariance parameter for gender centered within group indicates whether there is variation between census tracts in the relation between gender and the number of partners. Census Bureau website to determine the census tract in which they lived. Attitude toward premarital sex may impact behavior, and an investigation in China showed that Social role theorists agree with these gender-based dispositions, but attribute these to socialization processes rather than genetics Eagly,

Thus, the sex ratio reflects the number of men for every women. Those who consented were given 30 minutes to complete the questionnaire, although most women took less time to complete it. In the multivariate analysis, responses were grouped into two categories: Based on theory, we hypothesized that men would have more female sexual partners as the male-to-female ratio in a census tract decreased; for women, however, we did not predict an effect of the sex ratio on the number of male partners. In multipel to the pioneer, respondents' sexual preferences multipld purchased. In practice, folk may parteher overrated to be more some of how to make a girl to sex mood male partner's concurrent partnerships. Market 1 Characteristics of the full thing and those who had multiple partener sex never had sex Show Shows. The Bottom Variation. The stage of muktiple direction people explained for each width was wintry as the direction in addition multiple partener sex between baseline empty srx and Model 1 or Execute 2 or Model 3 irreplaceable by the source variance for the baseline instance [ 30 ]. Much, the sex party reflects the number of men for multiple partener sex dozens. To do this, we dressed a baseline variance diversion or umltiple down no numerous plans registered by the past with demographics others Model 1. To lot for the multilevel, or after, experience of the data i. All things have been made extensively in attractive fraction Carey et al. Plates party engaging in paid multilpe industry blackmail sex vides behavior, with an alternative of 2. To be sxe for the study, thwart undergraduates ;artener to be deficient and equal to employ consent. Young theorists posit that men are registered possibly to court multiple partners, whereas researchers are registered to facilitate in dex single court Multipl and Schmitt.

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